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Summary. This book focuses on soil development in restoration of post‐mining sites. In particular, the authors address the role of biota, including plants.
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- Humus accumulation and humification during soil development in post-mining soil
- Soil Biota and Ecosystem Development in Post Mining Sites: Jan Frouz: rinmehyri.ga
Macrofauna : Earthworms, termites, and dungbeetles, etc. They also help the formation of soil aggregates and soil pores. Gupta et al. Microbial biomass : Total mass of micro-organisms alive in a given volume or mass of soil. Microflora : Bacteria and fungi have diverse metabolic capabilities and are the principle agents for the cycling of nutrients e. They may be free living or symbiotic and active in the decomposition or build-up of organic matter. They also help in the formation of stable soil aggregates.
Microfauna : Protozoa and nematodes are a crucial link between microflora and larger fauna. They regulate the populations of bacteria and fungi and play a major role in the mineralization of nutrients. Microarthropods : Arthropods that are micrometers in size, have segmented bodies, jointed legs, and a cuticle that acts as an exoskeleton.
The two most abundant groups of soil microarthropods are collembolan and mites.
Mineralization : Conversion of an element from an organic form to an inorganic state as a result of microbial decomposition. Mites : Microarthropods with oval bodies, four pairs of legs, and a cuticle that acts as an exoskeleton. Mesofauna : Mites and collembola feed on litter and help fragment organic residues. They are predators of fungi and microfauna, playing an important role in regulating microbial populations and nutrient turnover. Mucilages : Gelatinous secretions and exudates produced by plant roots and many microorganisms.
Nematodes : also known as roundworms, are cylindrical, unsegmented worms with tapered ends. The term was coined by F. Fallow in but was popularized by Vasily Dokuchaev who founded the discipline of pedology. Simonson Pedosphere : Used interchangeably with soil and captures the concept that the soil is a habitat where the integration of rock lithosphere , air atmosphere , water hydrosphere , and living things the biosphere occurs.
Protozoa : Unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that moves by either protoplasmic flow amoeba , flagella flagellates , or cilia ciliates.
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Most species feed on bacteria, fungi, or detrital particles. Rhizosphere : The zone of soil under the influence of plant roots. Soil : The naturally occurring unconsolidated material on the surface of the earth that has been influenced by parent material, climate including the effects of moisture and temperature , macro- and micro-organisms, and relief, all acting over a period of time to produce soil that may differ from the material from which it was derived in many physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties.
Soil biota : Consists of the micro-organisms bacteria, fungi, and algae , soil animals protozoa, nematodes, mites, springtails, spiders, insects, and earthworms and plants living all or part of their lives in or on the soil or pedosphere. Soil food web : Consists of the community of organisms that live all or part of their lives in the pedosphere and mediate the transfer of nutrients among the living biotic and non-living abiotic components of the pedosphere through a series of conversions of energy and nutrients as one organism and or substance is consumed by other organisms.
Soil organic matter : Organic fraction of the soil exclusive of the undecayed plant and animal residue Sylvia Soil structure : The arrangement of soil particles into small clumps, called peds. Much like ingredients in a cake batter bind together to form a cake, soil particles sand, silt, clay, and even organic matter bind together to form peds. Peds have various shapes depending on their "ingredients" and on the conditions in which the peds formed: getting wet and drying out or freezing and thawing-or even people walking on or farming the soil.
Ped shapes roughly resemble balls, blocks, columns, and plates. Between the peds are spaces, or pores, in which air, water, and organisms can move. The sizes of pores and their shapes vary from soil structure to soil structure. Soil texture : The particles that make up soil are categorized into three groups by size-sand, silt, and clay. Sand particles are the largest and clay particles the smallest.
Although a soil could be all sand, all clay, or all silt, that is rare. Instead most soils are a combination of the three. The relative percentages of sand, silt, and clay are what give soil its texture. A loamy texture soil, for example, has nearly equal parts of sand, silt, and clay. Specific suppression : Antagonistic microorganisms in the rhizosphere and in young root lesions, which limit infection and secondary spread of the pathogen by runner hyphae along the roots.
Soil water holding capacity : The ratio of the volume of water which the porous medium, after being saturated, will retain against the pull of gravity to the volume of the porous medium Lohman et al. Trophic levels : Levels of the food chain. The first trophic level includes photosynthesizers that get energy from the sun. Organisms that eat photosynthesizers make up the second trophic level. Third trophic level organisms eat those in the second level, and so on. It is a simplified way of thinking of the food web.
In fact, some organisms eat members of several trophic levels. Brady, N. Beare, M. A hierarchical approach to evaluating the significance of soil biodiversity to biogeochemical cycling. Plant Soil , Coleman, D. Elsevier, Doran, J. Doran et al. Greenhouse Gas Working Group. Greenhouse Gas Working Group Rep. Gupta, V. Life in the Soil. Lal, R. Lal et al. Lohman, S. Definitions of selected ground-water terms-Revisions and conceptual refinements.
Madsen, E. Nature Reviews Microbiology Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Maier, R. Environmental Microbiology , 2nd ed. Paine, R. Conservation Biology 9, Simonson, R. Six, J. A history of research on the link between micro aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Sylvia, D.
Humus accumulation and humification during soil development in post-mining soil
Modern Soil Microbiology , 2nd ed. Soil: The Foundation of Agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture. What Are Soils? Food Safety and Food Security. Introduction to the Sorption of Chemical Constituents in Soils.
Soil Biota and Ecosystem Development in Post Mining Sites: Jan Frouz: rinmehyri.ga
Pests and Pollinators. Soil erosion controls on biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen.
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